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英语读后续写ppt

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高考英语新题型—读后续写 传统高考英语试卷中的写作部分多为命题作文,对考生的想象创造思维多有限制。作为考试改革的一部分,新题型的引入可望促进语言教学实践良性发展。读后续写题型具有较好的效度和信度。读后续写要求学生在理解一篇不完整文章的基础上,充分调动想象创新思维,大胆预测文章缺失部分的内容走势,进行充满个性色彩的设计,并用英语进行续写表达。该题型的启用在培养学生的综合语言运用能力(尤其是阅读和写作)和思维品质(尤其是想象能力和创新精神)方面将发挥积极作用,这完全符合国家考试改革的理念和课程标准的要求。 一、读后续写的要求和特征 (一)读后续写的要求 读后续写任务要求考生在一段350词以内的语言材料基础上,根据该材料内容、所给段落开头语和所标示关键词进行续写(150词左右),将其发展成一篇与给定材料有逻辑衔接、情节和结构完整的短文。续写部分分为两段。原文给出10处左右的标有下划线的关键词语,所续写短文应使用5个以上。 (二)读后续写的特征 《考试说明》中评分原则部分规定,读后续写阅卷时按5个档次给分。参考最高档次第五档(21-25分)的描述并考虑写作部分评分的其它因素,可以认为一篇优秀的读后续写具备以下特征: 1. 内容丰富充实,与所给短文融洽连贯; 2. 连接成分应用得当,行文结构紧凑一体,与所提供各段落开头语的衔接紧密合理; 3. 使用并用下划线标示5个以上短文中标出的关键词语; 4. 词汇丰富高级,语法准确多变(主被动句式、各类从句、特殊句式、非谓语动词等的使用情况灵活恰当、不拘一格、游刃有余); 5. 词数充分,150词左右。评分细则规定少于130词的,从总分中减去2分; 6. 拼写准确,英式或美式拼法皆可; 7. 标点合理,使用得当。 二、读后续写的步骤 读后续写的过程主要包括定位(Determine)、分类(Divide)、设计(Design)、初稿(Draft)、核查(Check)等五个步骤(简称“DDDDC”),具体如下。 (一)定位 第一个步骤,是通过阅读定位所提供语言材料的核心信息,包括核心单词、短语和句子等,目的是梳理内容的发展脉络和推进方向。本步骤的关键在于高效的阅读,要求学生在尽可能短的时间内,基于对某种语言的掌握,利用分析综合、分类比较、归纳演绎、抽象概括等逻辑思维技能,调动知识体中的有关部分,去洞穿语篇的文脉肌理,积极寻找信息。 《考试说明》并未对读后续写材料的体裁做出明确说明,仅描述为“一段350词以内的语言材料”,但王初明(2012)给读后续写下的定义是“阅读一篇未完的故事,并随后将它补全”,而且《考试说明》中的样题也是记叙文,因此,可以推测,所给短文的体裁应以记叙文为主,要尤其关注记叙文的篇章结构和信息重点(人物、情节、环境、人称、描写手段、主题意蕴等)。 (二)分类 第二个步骤,对原文给出的10个下划线关键词语进行分类,目的是在第三步骤设计情节时对其灵活地使用。对于记叙文,分类标准可以采用人物、动作、时间、地点、具体名词和抽象名词等。 (三)设计 第三个步骤,参考分类后的10个下划线关键词语,设计出与上下文内容连贯、丰富充实、自然流畅、引人入胜的情节走势。头脑风暴出核心词(以名词、动词、形容词、副词等内容词为主)即可,无需完整句子。在设计过程中,应充分考虑以下几点。 1. 续写第一段的内容设计既要考虑与上文的融洽衔接,同时也要考虑本段和最后一段开头语的呼应和衔接,而后者是容易忽视的部分。简言之,第一段的内容设计要成功搭建本段与前文、后文的桥梁。 2. 续写第二段是文章的结尾,要关注与文章开头的遥相呼应,根据具体语境弘扬感情的真、人性的善或拼搏的美,从而凸显主题,升华精神。考虑利用抒情和议论等表达方式使得画龙点睛之处能够表露文章深处蕴涵的主题意蕴、思想感情或人生哲理。 3. 灵活运用各种描写手法,以帮助打造鲜活灵动的人物形象和丰富充实的情节链条。以动作描写、语言描写和心理描写为主,辅之以恰当的外貌描写和环境描写。情节的推动主要靠动作描写,要完整描绘每一动作的前因和后果。语言描写包括独白和对话,可以反映人物情感、行为动机、或预示和推动故事情节的发展。心理描写聚焦于在某一境况下人物的内心活动,可以细腻地展示人物跌宕起伏的心路历程。外貌描写和环境描写的使用应根据情节发展和主题表达的实际需要。(百度百科,动作描写;语言描写;心理描写;外貌描写;环境描写)。 (四)初稿 第四个步骤,按照情节链条进行初稿的撰写。此过程应注意以下几点。 1. 分析原文语言表达方面的显著特征,观察有无直接引语、各类从句、特殊句型、非谓语动词等。通过模仿和创造,尽量提高与原文的协同,力求在各个语言层次(关键词、短语和句型等)的表达风格上和原文保持一致。 2. 先在头脑里组织整个句子的语法结构和内容走势,然后动笔书写,从而下笔流畅、整洁美观,避免字字艰难、反复涂改。 3. 对词汇的选择务必字斟句酌、精挑细选。文章是语言文字编成的织锦,词汇是构成文章唯一的材料,是文章的色彩和音色,要确保围绕主题之下的词汇使用在理性思维引导下能够丰富多彩和恰当合理。 (五)核查 第五个步骤,核查连接词、下划线标明原文给出的5个以上关键词语、词数、语法词汇、和标点等五个方面。核查有无连接词的使用;如无,应增添连接词,以保持上下文的衔接和连贯。核查是否使用下划线标明原文给出的5个以上关键词语。字数控制在150-160词范围内为佳。最后通读全文核查标点和语法词汇。 以上五个步骤和评分第五档(21-25分)的要求是相互对应的。五个步骤的逐个实施可以确保满足评分第五档在四个方面的要求。 三、范例分析 阅读下面短文,根据所给情节进行续写,使之构 一个完整的故事。 注意: 1. 所续写短文的词数应为150左右; 2. 应使用5个以上短文中标有下划线的关键词语; 3. 续写部分分为两段,每段的开头语已为你写好; 4. 续写完成后,请用下划线标出你所使用的关键词语。 接下来,我们将运用上述五个步骤来进行读后续写。 A Faithful Friend Neil loves to travel and he was so fond of forests. Whenever he plans for a holiday, he would choose a place that is blessed by Mother Nature. To celebrate his son’s second birthday, he decided to stay and enjoy the celebration in woods, located at the lap of a mountain. He with his family and friends, reached the village located near the woods and had his stay in the cottage. The cottage was located at the entrance of the dense forest, where the guests can see wolves wandering in the nearby place. Neil’s son saw a dog at the door and offered him a biscuit. The dog was happy and very soon the little son befriended the dog. On second day, the birthday of the boy was celebrated grandly in the woods within beautiful nature. The dog did not leave the boy even for a minute and they both became close friends. The next day, Neil, his wife and others decided to go for hunting in the forest and arranged a babysitter to take care of the little boy for half a day. After 3 hours, all of them returned to the cottage and they seemed very tired. The cottage was open and nobody was there. The dog saw Neil and others, it rushed to them and licked (舔) Neil’s shoes. Neil’s wife was shocked to see the blood strain in the dog’s mouth. Paragraph 1: Everyone was shocked to see the blood-spattered mouth._____________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ Paragraph 2: Hearing the noise from the dog, the babysitter rushed out of the room._________________________________ ______________________________________ ___________________________________ 一、Read and answer the question (3mins): 1. Why did Neil choose such a place for their holiday? A. because its scenery is beautiful. B. because the villagers are kind. C. because he likes nature very much. D. because he loves different tastes. 2.What does “ befriend” mean in para 3? A. make friends with B. be similar to C. be familiar with D.be friendly to 3.Why was Neil’s wife shocked to see the blood strain in the dog’s mouth? A. because she did not know what happened. B because she thought something dangerous happened to her son. C.because she was scared of the dog. D. because she was timid. 二、Grammar: Neil is a gentleman 1_________ (have) a lovely family, with his wife and a little son, who loves to travel and is especially fond of forests and woods. Whenever he plans 2_________a holiday, 3 __________ would choose a place that is blessed by Mother Nature.4 _________ celebrate his son’s second birthday, he decided to stay and enjoy the birthday celebration in woods,5 _________ (locate) at the lap of a mountain. The cottage was at the entrance of the dense forest, 6 _______ the guests can view animals wandering in the nearby place. 7 ___________the natural scenes were beautiful, the local villagers warned the guests to watch 8 __________ because there may be 9 __________ (wolf) living in the forest. Soon the little boy played with a dog happily as if they 10 __________ ( know) each other for a long time. 1.Tor F: Neil is a gentleman has a lovely family. =Neil is a gentleman who has a lovely family. =Neil is a gentleman having a lovely family. 2.Translation: 芦湖公园位于高青县中部。 Lu Hu Park is in the middle of Gaoqing county. Lu Hu Park lies in the middle of Gaoqing county. Lu Hu Park is located in the middle of Gaoqing county. 3.Translation: 尽管他很年轻,但他知道很多。 (although /though// as) Although / Though / While he is young, he knows much. Young though / as he is, he knows much. 4. Soon the little boy plays with a dog happily as if they __________ ( know) each other for a long time. 三、 Discussing for Writing A short story : where when who what how why 1.Who? Neil and his family, including his wife and his little son; his friends; a babysitter; 2.Where? A cottage in the woods (forest) 3.What ? Neil’s family and his friends celebrated his son’s second birthday 4.How many animals are referred to in the text? What are they? Two, dog and wolves. 5.What qualities will you remember when you think of dogs? loyal ,fainthful(忠诚的), friendly(友善的), lovely,cute(可爱), smart(敏捷), intelligent, clever(聪明的)... Good points 6.What qualities will you remember when you think of wolves? tricky (狡猾的) cruel(残忍的) aggressive (进攻性的) snaky (阴险的)... Bad points Para1. Everyone was shocked to see the blood---spattered(溅、洒、泼) mouth. 1. Why was everyone shocked? Because they saw the blood-spattered mouth 2. Why was the dog’s mouth blood- spattered? Maybe something dangerous happened to the babysitter or the little son, especially the little son----he was hurt or he was killed... More questions about the first paragraph: Para2: Hearing the noise from the dog, the babysitter rushed out of the room. 1.What’s the truth? How about the dog? the little son? the woves? The dog tried its best to protect the little son, fighting against the wolves, accounting for its blood-spattered mouth. The little son was safe, and the wolves were killed or escaped. 2. What’s the main idea of this para? The truth of the story. 3. Who saw the truth? The babysitter saw the scene. Attention: 1. 5处划线; 2.有逻辑地大胆预测; 3. 抓住每段的关键词; 4. 两段间是否有逻辑关系; 5.注意字体和卷面 Para1: Everyone was shocked to see the blood-spattered(溅、洒、泼) mouth. They started to beat the dog. The poor dog screamed in pain, which was wounded badly soon. Neil could not believe that the dog seeming to be friendly should be so fierce and even killed his little son. His wife cried sadly while calling the name of the little son. Para2: Hearing the noise from the dog, the babysitter rushed out of the room. She was surprised why they were beating the dog, so she cried to make them stop. Then, she explained that the dog saved the boy when he was about to be attacked by some wolves wandering around the cottage. The dog fought with the wolves and finally killed them. As a result, the boy was not hurt at all. Neil then realised that the dog was indeed a fainthful friend. He also learned not to make decision in a hurry because haste makes waste.(欲速则不达) Conclusion: 1.续写是原有文本的基础上故事有逻辑的发展,而不是从文本中随便摘录语句的堆砌; 2.故事的发展要结合文本的提示以及常识:如:人们对于 狗和狼的普遍认识; 3.结尾最好要积极向上、有正能量。 如:最好不要预言小孩被伤害掉,邪恶战胜了正义。 4. 两段间的逻辑关系, 如:第一段要解释第二段的noise。   四、备考建议 面对读后续写这一新写作题型,在了解了其特点和写作技巧之后,考生只要加以适度练习,对此新题型可以做到得心应手。 1. 充分利用记叙文故事类的阅读理解或者完形填空。考生在做此类文章的试题时,读到适当的位置,可以短暂停止,根据已读部分文章的脉络,对文章进行发散思维,设想可能的几种结尾,最后对照原文的结尾,看自己的设想是否与原文一致。 2. 经常实施微型化训练,也就是对所读文章的某一段落进行设想。根据某一段落的首句提示,结合文章的上文对该段进行合理设想,具体推断该段可能要讲述的内容。 3. 与传统写作类似,续写文章更加要注意句与句之间的连接词,或其的暗示作用。如范例中的续写部分的第二段“the noise”中的“noise”表明在上一段中已经提到,并且与后面发生关系。 4. 进行适度专题化练习。俗话说,熟能生巧。对于读后续写这一新题型也是如此。通过适度地练习,可以进一步熟知该种题型的特色,更好地掌握该种题型的写作技巧,更有效地调动传统写作的基础知识,从而写出一篇优美的续写短文。需要注意的是,后续写补全的是语篇,而非单词或短语。 5.在平时的教学中,老师要帮助学生释放创造力和想象力,激发表达动机。  

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